PheroTalk

PheroTalk

The World's Largest Pheromone Community

Get Real Pheromones directly from Androtics Pheromone Research at the SmartMones Pheromone Store

Questions about pheromones?
Get Fast, Friendly, No-Obligation Help from Real People at the Pheromone Hotline.
Call 1-800-671-6464 in the USA, or +01 425-786-2001 Internationally

Latest Threads ::.. Hello everyone New. Looking for help with love life and sales advice Hello new here just recently found bout pheromones and does it really work? Best Post Of The Week 08, February, 2017 Curious About Pheromones To Keep the Chemical Attraction from Waning w/ Time. F/44 Hello. Pheromones to Help Ignite my Wife's Fire. M/50 Hello everybody Hello everyone. Pheromones for Attraction, Get the Girl I Like. M/34 Newbie mone user from Downunder. Pheromones to Attract Asian Women? M/38/Australia


Go Back   PheroTalk > Discussion > Studies & Abstracts

Register Invite Your Friends FAQ Members List Calendar Mark Forums Read

Comment
 
Article Tools Display Modes
"Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"
"Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"
Published by Socrates
November 12th, 2006
Default "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

http://users.utu.fi/mjranta/reprints...a_etal2006.pdf


Evolution and Human Behavior 27 (2006) 259–269

Male steroid hormones and female preference for male body odor

Markus J. Rantala, C.J. Peter Eriksson, Anssi Vainikka, Raine Kortet


Abstract

It has been suggested that human scent works as a signal in mate selection, but the empirical evidence is scarce. Here, we examined whether women’s olfactory preferences for a man’s scent could be correlated with his testosterone, estradiol, or cortisol concentrations, and whether these preferences change along with the menstrual cycle. In line with previous studies, women in their most fertile period gave the highest attractiveness ratings to all men. However, the intensity ratings by women at different menstrual phases did not significantly differ statistically. Interestingly, we found that cortisol concentration in saliva correlated positively with the attractiveness but not with the intensity ratings of male T-shirt odor by all women’s groups. However, neither testosterone nor estradiol was significantly associated with the ratings of attractiveness or intensity. Thus, our study suggests that there could be a novel mechanism for odor-based selection in humans.
Article Tools

Featured Articles
Read more
Copulins cure??

Is there an ANTIDOTE to long term Copulin Exposure?
  #1  
By Jasmin on November 12th, 2006, 10:03 AM
Default Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

So we tend to prefer men who are stressed??

Hmm.

Maybe it's because many good providers are stressed. They can do lots of stuff and give us a good life, and then we can love them and ease their burden (reducing their cortisol.)
Reply With Quote
  #2  
By Socrates on November 14th, 2006, 10:59 AM
Default Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

From the full text at http://users.utu.fi/mjranta/reprints/Rantala_etal2006.pdf :

"4. Discussion
Interestingly, we found a positive correlation between salivary cortisol level and attractiveness ratings of men’s T-shirts by all women’s groups, but no significant evidence that the primary androgen, testosterone, could be associated with the odor of a man. Thus, in the light of our study it seems that either cortisol or some other hormone connected to the cortisol metabolism may shape the attractiveness of body odors in humans. For example, several androgens and cortisol are metabolised from the same precursor, pregnenolone (e.g., Nussey & Whitehead, 2001). Further studies are needed to confirm our result.

Recently, it has been found that several women’s preferences—males with a masculine face (Johnston, Hagel, Franklin, Fink, & Grammer, 2001; Penton-Voak & Perret, 2000; Penton-Voak et al., 1999), body odor of symmetric men (Gangestad & Thornhill, 1998), body odor of men with immunocompetent genotypes (Thornhill et al., 2003), and masculine behavioral displays (Gangestad, Simpson, Cousins, Garver-Apgar, & Christensen, 2004)— change across the menstrual cycle. However, we did not find evidence that the preference for high saliva cortisol levels changed significantly during the cycle, but all groups of women seemed to prefer males with high cortisol levels.

Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?Physiologically, it is possible that cortisol has either a direct or indirect link via adrenalin to the activity of the apocrine sweat glands which might have effects on the attractiveness of body odor (Ikai & Hasegawa, 1971; Rothardt & Beier, 2001). Further, metabolism of sweat by commensal microbes might make the individual’s odor more pleasant depending on sweating rate (see, for example, Austin & Ellis, 2003; Stoddart, 1991). Evolutionarily, immunosuppressive hormones are said to be essential for the production of good-quality sperm since haploid sperm might be susceptible to autoimmune attacks (Skau & Folstad, 2004). Thus, by preferring the scent of cortisol, women might be able to gain both good sperm and good immune genes for their offspring since only genetically immunocompetent males would be able to maintain high cortisol levels(Folstad & Karter, 1992). Unfortunately, we were not able to measure the amount of perspiration in this study. However, it is important to note that cortisol concentration did not correlate with the intensity ratings of T shirts, suggesting that cortisol affects the scent qualitatively, not quantitatively. Also, it is possible that some of the studied men might have experienced stress, which could affect their cortisol values. Although the experimental conditions were the same for all participants and were planned to be as pleasant as possible.

Women’s self-reported sexual desire has been reported to peak at the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle (see, for example, Regan, 1996), when women also exhibit an increased olfactory sensitivity (Doty, 1981; Kohl & Francoeur, 1995). Thus, as indicated in our study, it is likely that the average attractiveness rating of male scent by women not using contraceptive pills changes across the cycle, showing the highest attractiveness at the fertile phase of the cycle. However, the average intensity ratings of women did not change during the cycle among women not using contraceptive pills. The use of contraceptive pills affected the average intensity ratings when analysed as overall difference between contraceptive users and nonusers, suggesting that pills might, in some circumstances, increase the olfactory sensitivity. In this study, we did not collect menstrual cycle diaries or measure salivary estradiol and progesterone. Thus, these results may suffer from some uncontrolled variation in the exact timing of ovulation and fertility groups. To minimise these problems, we excluded all women who had a cycle length either shorter than 21 days or longer than 37 days. Our study suggests that women’s olfactory sensitivity to a man’s scent changes during the menstrual cycle, being highest before and during the fertile window of the cycle. Moreover, our results propose that cortisol or its interplay with other causal factors affecting male scent may shape the olfactory cues of mate selection in humans. Further studies are needed to explore the generality of this result in other taxa and the evolutionary significance of this preference to women’s fitness."
Reply With Quote
  #3  
By Socrates on November 14th, 2006, 11:20 AM
Default Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

[Jasmin and Futurist,
the following is a study, this time in wild chimpanzees (close relatives of us humans ), whose results indicate that "male dominance rank is positively correlated with urinary cortisol excretion in a stable dominance hierarchy." So more dominance in the hierarchy = more cortisol. According to the authors, "these findings suggest that dominant chimpanzees experience significant metabolic costs that must be set against the presumed reproductive benefits of high rank."]

http://www.springerlink.com/content/my3uq1qaywd3ug7q/
Dominance, cortisol and stress in wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology journal
Volume 55, Number 4 / February, 2004
Martin N. Mullerand Richard W. Wrangham

Abstract Field studies of endocrine function in a range of social mammals suggest that high dominance rank is commonly associated with elevated glucocorticoid production. This is puzzling, because in stable dominance hierarchies, high status is normally associated with social control and predictability, key predictors of low psychological stress. One solution to this problem may be that high rank is commonly associated with elevated energetic expenditure, leading to increased metabolic stress and glucocorticoid secretion. We conducted behavioural observations and non-invasive hormone sampling of male chimpanzees in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to examine the relationship between cortisol, dominance and stress in wild chimpanzees. Results indicate that male dominance rank positively correlated with urinary cortisol excretion in a stable dominance hierarchy. Cortisol excretion also correlated positively with rates of male aggression. We suggest that the relationship between cortisol and rank in chimpanzees may be driven by energetic factors rather than psychosocial ones. This interpretation is supported by the observation that urinary cortisol levels correlated negatively with food availability. These findings suggest that dominant chimpanzees experience significant metabolic costs that must be set against the presumed reproductive benefits of high rank. Metabolic stress may mediate the relationship between rank and cortisol in other social mammals.
Keywords Chimpanzees - Cortisol - Stress - Dominance - Aggression
Communicated by L. Sterck
Reply With Quote
  #4  
By Socrates on November 19th, 2006, 08:29 AM
Default Could Cortisol and/or its metabolites be 'pheromonally active'?

[the following is a study which seems to pick out some ‘cortisol metabolites’ on human skin; could the presence of one or more of these substances be responsible for the result in the above study?]

http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/bichaw/1966/5/i05/f-pdf/f_bi00869a004.pdf?sessid=6006l3
ABSTRACT: Cortisol-4-[ l e ] was found actively metabolized by slices of human skin. By paper chromatography, isotopic dilution, and the preparation of acetates, the following metabolites were identified: cortisone, Ad-pregnene-1 1&17cr,2Op,21 -tetraol-3-one (Reichstein's substances E), A4-pregnene-1 lp-17cu,20a,21-tetraol-3-one (epi-E), A4-pregnene-17a-2OP,21-triol-3,1l-dione (U), and A4-pregnene-17a,20a,21-triol-3,1 1-dione (epi-U), allodihydrocortisol, and allotetrahydrocortisol. The latter two steroids were found only of cortis014-[~4C] with foreskin and not other anatomical sites. The two general metabolism of cortisol in human skin appear oxidation of the llp-01 and reduction of saturation of the Ad-double bond and
3-one appear limited to the foreskin.

[some probably correct chemical names of the above mentioned ‘cortisol metabolites’ and websites they may be available from]

www.researchplus.com/pdf/steroidp.pdf
4-PREGNEN-11b,17a,20b,21-TETROL-3-ONE (Reichstein's compound "E")
4-PREGNEN-11b,17a,20a,21-TETROL-3-ONE (Reichstein's epi "E")
4-PREGNEN-17a,20a,21-TRIOL-3,11-DIONE (epi Reichstein's compound "U")
4-PREGNEN-17a,20b,21-TRIOL-3,11-DIONE (Reichstein's compound "U")

www.steraloids.com

Q3880-000
4-PREGNEN-11β, 17, 21-TRIOL-3, 20-DIONE

Melting Point:
215-220°C
Rotation:
+153° Diox
Molecular Weight:
362.46
TLC:
••
Formula:
C21 H30 O5
Pricing:
$8.5/100mgm, $10/gm (1gm), $3.5/gm (5gm), $2.3/gm (25gm)
Notes:

Trivial Names:
CORTISOL
HYDROCORTISONE
17-HYDROXYCORTICOSTERONE
KENDALL'S COMPOUND 'F'
REICHSTEIN'S SUBSTANCE 'M'
11β,17α,21-TRIHYDROXYPREGN-4-ENE-3,20-DIONE


Q2500-000
4-PREGNEN-17, 21-DIOL-3, 11, 20-TRIONE

Melting Point:
220-222°C
Rotation:
+211° EtOH
Molecular Weight:
360.44
TLC:

Formula:
C21 H28 O5
Pricing:
$8.5/100mgm, $12/gm (1gm), $10.6/gm (5gm), $5/gm (25gm)
Notes:

Trivial Names:
CORTISONE
17α-HYDROXY-11-DEHYDROCORTICOSTERONE
KENDALL'S COMPOUND 'E'
4-PREGNENE-17α,21-DIOL-3,11,20-TRIONE
REICHSTEIN'S SUBSTANCE 'FA'
WINTERSTEINER'S COMPOUND 'F'


Q3760-000
4-PREGNEN-11β, 17, 20α, 21-TETROL-3-ONE

Melting Point:
258-260°C
Rotation:
+88° MeOH
Molecular Weight:
364.48
TLC:

Formula:
C21 H32 O5
Pricing:
$20/5mgm, $90/50mgm, $120/100mgm
Notes:

Trivial Names:
20α-DIHYDROCORTISOL
REICHSTEIN'S SUBSTANCE 'EPI' 'E'


Q3790-000
4-PREGNEN-11β, 17, 20β, 21-TETROL-3-ONE

Melting Point:
128-130°C
Rotation:
+91° MeOH
Molecular Weight:
364.48
TLC:

Formula:
C21 H32 O5
Pricing:
$15/5mgm, $30/10mgm, $110/50mgm, $185/100mgm
Notes:

Trivial Names:
20β-DIHYDROCORTISOL
REICHSTEIN'S SUBSTANCE 'E'


Q3960-000
4-PREGNEN-17, 20β, 21-TRIOL-3, 11-DIONE

Melting Point:
206-207°C
Rotation:
+147° MeOH
Molecular Weight:
362.46
TLC:

Formula:
C21 H30 O5
Pricing:
$10/2mgm, $25/10mgm, $90/50mgm
Notes:

Trivial Names:
20β-DIHYDROCORTISONE
REICHSTEIN'S SUBSTANCE 'U'
17α,20β,21-TRIHYDROXY-4-PREGNENE-3,11-DIONE


Q3930-000
4-PREGNEN-17, 20α, 21-TRIOL-3, 11-DIONE

Melting Point:
242-243°C
Rotation:
+148°
Molecular Weight:
362.46
TLC:

Formula:
C21 H30 O5
Pricing:
$15/5mgm, $20/10mgm, $80/50mgm, $150/100mgm
Notes:

Trivial Names:
20α-DIHYDROCORTISONE
REICHSTEIN'S EPI 'U'


Reply With Quote
  #5  
By itwow on November 20th, 2006, 01:26 AM
Default Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

I noticed my SO seems to "miss me badly" when she's into the 2nd/3rd day of her period (actually, more sexually aroused). This phenomena was also reported in the other forum & concurred by some.

Although this is not the fertile days of her cycle, would TEnone give a good response? What would be a better choice if not TEnone? Anyone tried this? Thanks.

i2w
Reply With Quote
  #6  
By Rob on November 20th, 2006, 05:18 PM
Default Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

Quote:
Originally Posted by Jasmin View Post
So we tend to prefer men who are stressed??

Hmm.

Maybe it's because many good providers are stressed. They can do lots of stuff and give us a good life, and then we can love them and ease their burden (reducing their cortisol.)

Stress being attractive? I find that "relaxed" confidence seems to work alot better.
Reply With Quote
  #7  
By Socrates on November 23rd, 2006, 09:44 AM
Default Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

Cortisol does not just equal stress. For an example read my second post above taken from the discussion in the article: "Evolutionarily, immunosuppressive hormones [like Cortisol] are said to be essential for the production of good-quality sperm since haploid sperm might be susceptible to autoimmune attacks. Thus, by preferring the scent of cortisol, women might be able to gain both good sperm and good immune genes for their offspring since only genetically immunocompetent males would be able to maintain high cortisol levels."

Also Cortisol isn't all bad. Nothing in the human body is all good or all bad. For example there are diseases (like adrenal burnout perhaps) where LOW Cortisol is the culprit.

Based on the above study, cortisol and the skin metabolites (at least those I have named) should be investigated as putative pheromones.

Visionary
Last edited by Visionary7903; November 23rd, 2006 at 11:29 AM..
Reply With Quote
  #8  
By texaspete on November 27th, 2006, 12:10 AM
Exclamation Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

Quote:
Originally Posted by Socrates View Post
Cortisol does not just equal stress. For an example read my second post above taken from the discussion in the article: "Evolutionarily, immunosuppressive hormones [like Cortisol] are said to be essential for the production of good-quality sperm since haploid sperm might be susceptible to autoimmune attacks. Thus, by preferring the scent of cortisol, women might be able to gain both good sperm and good immune genes for their offspring since only genetically immunocompetent males would be able to maintain high cortisol levels."

Also Cortisol isn't all bad. Nothing in the human body is all good or all bad. For example there are diseases (like adrenal burnout perhaps) where LOW Cortisol is the culprit.

Based on the above study, cortisol and the skin metabolites (at least those I have named) should be investigated as putative pheromones.

Visionary
I'll be producing a truckload of cortisol this month due to my schedule and diet, AND I'll experimenting with a Testosterone booster. Keep this thread alive, because I might have some solid material to back up this cortisol idea. (See my "Uncool..." thread if you want to track my results through the month.)
Reply With Quote
  #9  
By David on November 27th, 2006, 02:36 AM
Default Re: "Why did women prefer the odors of men who had high cortisol level?"

Quote:
Originally Posted by gabe1970 View Post
I'll be producing a truckload of cortisol this month due to my schedule and diet, AND I'll experimenting with a Testosterone booster. Keep this thread alive, because I might have some solid material to back up this cortisol idea. (See my "Uncool..." thread if you want to track my results through the month.)
What's you testosterone booster?
Reply With Quote
Comment
1 Active User(s) Viewing This Topic (0 members and 1 guests):  


Similar Threads
Article Article Starter Category Comments Last Post
Anyone have a High School "Fallout Mix"? (and Hi) maxx55 MEN's Pheromone Advice, Tricks and Tips 12 February 15th, 2012 04:11 PM
Has Anyone Used Pheromones To Take "Best Friends" To The Next Level "Lovers"?? joel2280 MEN's Pheromone Advice, Tricks and Tips 14 August 27th, 2011 01:22 PM
First Mixes: "Good" "Evil" and "Instant Bad-Ass" Dr. Fedora MEN's Pheromone Advice, Tricks and Tips 16 February 25th, 2010 04:26 AM
X-Men's "Beast" admits to using pheromones to control his "animal tendencies" Jasmin MEN's Pheromone Advice, Tricks and Tips 4 February 16th, 2010 11:13 PM
high fat, low-carb.. when men were men and women women PheroQuirk Lounge 35 July 10th, 2009 04:32 AM

Article Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Forum Jump


All times are GMT +3. The time now is 11:18 AM.


©2004-2017 PheromoneTalk.com
(c) 2002-2015 Androtics Pheromone Research All Rights Reserved Internationally
Article powered by GARS 2.1.9 ©2005-2006
Page generated in 0.30336 seconds with 20 queries