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Old July 29th, 2017, 07:40 AM   #1
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Default How pheromones are detected. VNO not involved in processing of putative pheromones

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14674834/. Knecht et al. [2003] measured sensitivity to the odor of androstenone, a steroid found in underarm sweat, before and after functionally occluding (complete blockage of) the VNO by covering its duct with a latex patch. Functional occlusion of the VNO did not change participants perception of androstenone or that of a nonendogenous control odor.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607301/

This study was designed to answer the question about the VNO involvement in human processing of putative pheromones Androstadienone and EST (female A1 equivalent). The study shows that the human VNO has no function in perception and processing of putative pheromones, they worked as usual without the VNO. There was no difference between subjects with and without a detectable VNO in Androstadienone perception. Functional occlusion (complete blocking) of the VNO did not change the pattern of brain activation after exposure with Androstadienone so it was working even when the VNO was not accessible. Functional occlusion of the VNO also did not alter the perception of or sensitivity to A1 .

In another case, The patients suffered from severe nasal polyposis, which prevented odor molecules to reach the olfactory cleft, therefore the main olfactory epithelium, and which rendered patients anosmic (unable to smell). However, the VNO, which is located much more further back, was not affected. Savic et al. observed activations of the hypothalamus after stimulation with estratetraenol ( EST ), the female counterpart of AND ( A1 ); in the control group but not in the patient group who could not smell due to the nasal blockage.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art...MC3607301/#R49 [Savic et al., 2009]. They interpreted these results as a proof that putative human pheromones are perceived via the main normal olfactory epithelium.

This means that those who couldnt smell through their normal olfactory epithelium did not get the response from EST which shows it works via the normal olfactory system. And further, even though the VNO was accessible there was no response, which also shows that isnt involved at least with A1 and EST ..

Chemosignals in humans are probably processed via the main olfactory system based on that information alone, and in the above link mentions the other possibilities:
Although the Grueneberg ganglion, an anatomical structure located at the anterior portion of the nostril, was recently demonstrated to act as a pheromonal receptor organ for fear odors in rodents https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art...PMC3607301/#R6 [Brechbuhl et al., 2008] and may therefore be a candidate for having vomeronasal functions in humans; tentative evidence indicates that in humans the functions of the VNOmight have migrated to the main olfactory system. So, a vomeronasal receptor gene that in rodents is expressed in the VNO is in humans expressed in the olfactory mucosa https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art...MC3607301/#R45 [Rodriguez et al., 2000].


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Last edited by datadragon; January 7th, 2018 at 07:22 PM.
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androstadienone , human , involved , processing , putative , vno


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