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Old March 20th, 2012, 10:44 AM   #111
Visionary7903 Male
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A note on the previous post. Bands improve grip strength. A recent study by Kern et al., Autism severity and muscle strength: A correlation analysis, has shown that Autism severity is correlated with hand strength and this opens up the door for treatments that improve hand strength to be studied...
Quote:
...3. Discussion
The more severely affected a child with [Autism Spectrum Disorders] was, the weaker the child's hand strength. The apparent relationship between autism severity and hand strength has interesting implications. First, it suggests that [Autism] may not be just a mental disorder, but a medical condition that may also includes physical disability. Studies in [Autism] suggest a motor coordination component, impairments in motor development, hypotonia, and poor sensory motor functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorders (Greenetal., 2009; Hardanetal., 2003; Mingetal., 2007; Minshewetal., 2004; Mostofskyetal., 2009; Piek & Dyck, 2004; Provostetal., 2007).
A second implication from the apparent relationship between autism severity and muscle strength is that treatments in autism may need to address the physical or medical disabilities...
(source: Movement Matters - Bringing Fitness into the Lives of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder - Part II - FitCommerce.com)

Last edited by Visionary7903; March 21st, 2012 at 02:22 AM.
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Old March 21st, 2012, 04:51 AM   #112
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Indeed, devices that improve hand/grip strength may also be beneficial in terms of calming often-racing Autistic minds. Here is a review on the Gripp Ball - Microwaveable Therma Gripp Arm & Hand Strengthener from a customer on Amazon.com:
Quote:
I work with a child with Autism and we use this ball to help calm his nerves. It words very well...however there is another brand Therma Gripp that he uses which is a better tecture, but that one blew up in the microwave! SO BE CAREFUL!
GREAT PRODUCT!
(source: Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Gripp Ball - Microwaveable Therma Gripp Arm & Hand Strengthener)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 05:09 AM   #113
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Default 'Agricultural specialisterne': rural employment revolution for those with Autism

Here are some more exercises that should help improve hand strength in Autistic children. This is very important, of course, for classroom activities...
Quote:
...Squeezing Exercises
Children can improve their overall hand strength with these fun squeezing activities. Have the child squeeze water from a washcloth or sponge. Spray bottles provide good resistance; the child can squirt water into potted plants or help clean a table or window. The child can also squeeze koosh balls, squishy balls or therapy putty.

Pinching Exercises
Pinching exercises help develop strength in the thumb and fingers. The child can make a pie with putty or play dough and pinch the edges with thumb and index fingers. Objects that encourage pinching include clothespins, tongs, tweezers and pegs.

Manipulation Exercises
Manipulation exercises help develop the small muscles inside the hand and allow the child to experience greater function with his fingers. Have the child pick up three small objects with thumb and fingers, hiding them in his hand. Then have the child use his thumb and fingers of the same hand to retrieve the objects from his palm and drop them into a small container. Flipping coins, tearing paper and turning dials can help develop rotational movements.

Awareness Exercises
The child with autism may have impaired sensory perception of her body in space, and may not be adequately aware of her hands and fingers. This can lead to weakness and poor use of muscles. You can work on increasing her awareness by having her play with textures such as shaving cream, dried beans, or sand. Tracing the hand and imitating finger plays also helps increase awareness...
(source: Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Gripp Ball - Microwaveable Therma Gripp Arm & Hand Strengthener)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 05:24 AM   #114
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One symptom commonly found in children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders is low muscle tone (Hypotonia). In a 2006 study at Arizona State University by Adams et al it was found that Autistic children with low muscle tone had very low levels of potassium. However, this does not necessarily mean that increasing Potassium in the diet will solve the issue, as it may just be an indicator of low activity levels...
Quote:
...For the subgroup with low muscle tone, the finding of low potassium was large and statistically significant. Potassium is needed for muscle contractions and is released during periods of activity. Low potassium in the hair is an indication of low muscle activity. The low muscle activity could be the result of low potassium in the body overall, but hair measurements are inconclusive regarding this point...
(source: http://media.mercola.com/imageserver...talsinhair.pdf)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 05:31 AM   #115
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One symptom commonly found in children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders is low muscle tone (Hypotonia). Carnitine supplementation may also be useful for improving muscle tone in Autistic children...
Quote:
...The Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center's Department of Enzymology has identified two patients with the "carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome" through alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotyping. The carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein in the serum of these patients produces a band on polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing that moves cathodally of the Z-band. In the area of carnitine deficiency, there is, for example, less than 5% of normal muscle carnitine concentration. After carnitine supplementation, patients unable to talk or walk, with hypotonic musculature and symptoms of autism, became able to walk with the help of a walker. They could stand alone for short periods, and they acquired an interest in their surroundings. The common findings of carnitine deficiency were an impaired ability to walk, muscular hypotonia, reduced muscle carnitine concentration, and an improvement in locomotion while on carnitine...
(source: Autism: An Overview and Theories on its Causes)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 05:42 AM   #116
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One symptom commonly found in children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders is low muscle tone (Hypotonia). Hypotonia affects various parts of the body and not necessarily just parts relating to exercise...
Quote:
...that low tone means that muscles tend to remain loose and relaxed more than muscles that have 'normal' muscle tone. That relaxed tone of the musculature in and around the mouth can result in drooling. Sometimes the speech of children with low muscle tone is imprecise, as the muscles aren't contracting completely enough or with the necessary speed to arrive at the contact target necessary to produce precisely articulated speech. Since the child you're referring to is nonverbal, you won't be able to consider his speech as evidence of low muscle tone, though you may notice sluggishness in some of his other oral movements. How does he do when he eats? Do you notice some sluggish movements of the lips and tongue, or Is he a messy eater? Though low muscle tone may not be readily apparent, there may be some overt signs...
(source: Pediatrics: excessive drooling, excess drooling in kids; causes of kids' drooling, 8 yr. old drools excessively)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 05:49 AM   #117
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One symptom commonly found in children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders is low muscle tone (Hypotonia). Here is another article detailing the connection of low muscle tone with other problems that you might not expect to be related to the issue:
Quote:
...Symptoms Associated with Low Tone
Fatigue/low arousal - The body's inefficient processing of nutrients results in reduced available energy overall.

Reflux/Constipation - Poor or reduced trunk tone can cause stomach flaps to flop, thus impeding food movement. Poor sitting posture or 'slumping' can be a result of soft trunk muscles.

Weak chewing and poor/picky eating - Low tone in the mouth affects mastication, causing drooling when saliva pools in the open mouth.

Poor visual tracking - Weak eye muscles struggle to control and coordinate eye movements. for constipation. It can cause loose stools or stomach distress in some cases...
(source: http://devdelay.org/newsletter/artic...uscle-tone.pdf)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 06:36 AM   #118
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One symptom commonly found in children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders is low muscle tone (Hypotonia). Aside from treating Hypotonia with supplements, one can also adapt the exercise environment to deal with this issue...
Quote:
...Swimming assists with normalizing the muscle tone in children, according to Child's Play Physiotherapy and Aquatics for Kids. When you are in the water you become weightless, which allows low muscle tone to become less of a hindrance. Additionally, swimming improves gross motor skills, which builds low muscle tone. Children with low muscle tone often lose their balance and fall; swimming assists with this problem. Children who swim build their coordination and maintain their equilibrium better...
Here is a video of a child with Hypotonia improving his symptoms while having an enjoyable swim: Water Fun - YouTube
(source: The Best Sports For Kids With Low Muscle Tone | LIVESTRONG.COM)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 07:00 AM   #119
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One symptom commonly found in children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders is low muscle tone (Hypotonia). Another fun way to improve Hypotonia, like Swimming and Therapeutic Horseback Riding, is via Rebound Therapy - the use of a trampoline for its therapeutic effects...
Quote:
...The stimulatory pressure to the skin [caused by Rebound Therapy] may also increase low muscle tone: Rollings (2005) claims that tone is increased because of the stimulatory effect upon the sensory systems. The repetitive changes in pressure to the skin resulting from repetitive bouncing, may stimulate muscle spindles. The increased sensory stimulation heightens awareness in the brain and [Central Nervous System] which may result in more impulses to be innervated...
*Rollings (2005) refers to Rollings (2005) Course Notes, Rebound Therapy Handbook: Rebound Therapy for Special Education Needs. 2 day course. Newcastle.
(source: http://www.reboundtherapy.org/papers...ssertation.pdf)
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Old March 21st, 2012, 11:57 AM   #120
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Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a psychological approach that utilizes modern behavioral learning theory to modify behaviors, focusing on the observable relationship of behaviour to the environment.

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is based on principles originally developed by B.F. Skinner...
Quote:
...Skinner and others outlined basic principles of behavior, which include reinforcement, prompting, fading, shaping, schedules of reinforcement, etc., etc., etc. These principles comprise the pure science of behavior analysis. It's important to understand that this is the pure science, NOT the applied science. This distinction is made when any science is studied in both pure and applied ways (i.e., physics). When the principles of the pure science of behavior analysis are used to teach (or when used in any applied setting), this practice is called "Applied Behavior Analysis" (or, earlier, behavior modification [or the experimental analysis of behavior]). This means that the principles used to describe how behavior is lawful, observable and measurable, and has an impact on the environment, have been adapted into teaching methods based on those principles.

The reason that people who don't know this get confused about what ABA is stems from the difference between the pure and applied science. The science is one thing, made up of these principles of behavior. The applied science is another, made up of strategies based on those principles...
In 2005, Richard Simpson with co-authors, published a book which identified four evidence-based practices (that have significant and convincing empirical efficacy and support) in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders. ABA-related interventions figured prominently as evidence-based approaches. Here is some detail on three of those interventions...
Quote:
...Discrete Trial Instruction
Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) [also known as Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)] is used when a student needs to learn a skill, but needs the information taught in small repeated steps. It can be utilized during an adult to student, one-to-one teaching situation. Data collection is also an important part of the DTI format. The data collection process supports decision-making when planning the student's program. Data is collected on a planned schedule in order to determine specific information about skill acquisition. The data should provide the teacher with information about beginning skill levels, progress, problems, acquisition, generalization and movement to the next skill level. The steps of discrete trial instruction include gaining the child's attention, then presenting the child with an instruction. The instruction is then followed by a prompt, if needed, to elicit the child to make a correct response. The teacher then provides reinforcement.

Pivotal Response Training
Pivotal Response Training (PRT) [(previously called the Natural Language Paradigm (N.L.P.)] targets behaviors to be taught in natural environments using items that are age appropriate and reinforcing to the child. A principle area of intervention concentration is communication. Children are taught to respond to multiple cues and stimuli, improve motivation, increase self management capacity and increase self initiations. A structures session includes:
- the question, instruction, or opportunity should be clear, uninterrupted and appropriate to the tasks and the child must be attending;
- maintenance tasks are tasks the child can already perform and should be interspersed with new acquisition tasks;
- tasks should be chosen by the child;
- the instruction or question should include multiple components.
PRT has been used extensively to improve play skills such as manipulative play and symbolic play (Simpson, 2005). For example, PRT could be used to teach a child to appropriately use a train on a train track. Language in this intervention could include making the train noise prior to intersections, identifying train colors, and making familiar verbalizations such as "all aboard" and "choo choo" sounds.

Learning Experiences: An Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Parents
Learning Experiences Alternative Program (LEAP) seeks to develop social and emotional growth, enhance language and communication abilities, increase independence in work and play activities, facilitate choice making, increase capacity to cope with transitions and improve behavior and improve overall cognition abilities. LEAP facilitates the development of functional skills, independent play and work skills, social interaction skills, language skills, and adaptive behavior. Children, ages three to five, attend LEAP pre-schools on weekdays for 15 hours a week, year-round. Student ratios are typically three students with autism to 10 typically developing children. Typically developing peers are taught social scripts such as getting your friends attention. It is through the interaction of the peers, family, and staff that children with [Autism Spectrum Disorders] receive the benefit (Simpson, 2005)...
DTT is one of the instructional methodologies frequently used in ABA-based programs. PRT is a behavioural treatment intervention based on the principles of ABA. LEAP contains aspects of behavioural analysis but is primarily a developmentally based approach.

Another form of ABA which is an evidence-based treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders, is Early Intensive Behaviour Intervention (EIBI) (formerly known as the Lovaas method). EIBI was developed by the most well known ABA pioneer - psychology professor Dr. Ole Ivar Lovaas at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)...
Quote:
...Lovaas intervention utilizes systematic instruction with skills acquired through prompting and prompt fading procedures, use of positive reinforcement and extensive generalization strategies. As intervention progresses, reinforcers are replaced by social and more 'natural' reinforcers (i.e., verbal praise). The intervention is structured so the target (desired) behaviors initially occur through prompting, and are maintained by the reinforcement that follows them. Aggressive and/or self-stimulatory behaviors are reduced by being ignored and by teaching alternate, more socially acceptable forms of behaviour...
There are also various other ABA-related approaches (with less Autism treatment evidence behind them) that I may delve into in future posts:
- Applied Verbal Behaviour (AVB or ABA/VB);
- Verbal Behaviour Therapy (VBT);
- Precision Teaching (PT);
- Denver Model (DM);
- Early Start Denver Model (ESDM);
- Natural Environment Teaching (NET);
- Incidental Teaching;
- Milieu Language Teaching;
- Positive Behaviour Support (PBS); and
- Picture exchange communication system (PECS): a six-phase picture system based on ABA which is specially designed to overcome communication difficulties in children with Autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator.

(sources: A Brief History of Applied Behavior Analysis; Evidence-Based Practices, Autism Spectrum Institute, Illinois State University; Autism Resources)

Last edited by Visionary7903; June 24th, 2012 at 08:18 PM.
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